The Healthy Adult Human Body have about 4 to 5 litres (Female) and 5 to 6 (Male) litres of blood in the body circulation. Blood in human body makes up 8 percent of total body weight and it consists of the followings:-
Plasma - Blood consists of the yellowish fluid called Plasma in which are suspended the millions of cells that makes up of about 45% the volume of blood. It has its own characteristic odor and a relative density of 1.056 and 1.066 consisting of the followings:
Plasma proteins, albumin and globulin. These are reserves stores in
liver, muscles and fats which are use to nourish the body in times of
illness, coma or fasting. Albumin, which is one of a class of simple
proteins, composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and a small
percentage of sulphur. Globulin is a mixture of proteins in plasma.
It contains antibodies produced in the liver, spleen, bone marrow and lymph
glands to protect the body from invading viruses or bacteria.
c) Potassium, calcium, iodine, flourine and iron.
d) Nutrients - Glucose, amino acids and fatty acids.
e) Vitamins and medications that are absorbed from the bowel.
f) Hormones derived from the endocrine system which are secrete directly into the blood.
g) Waste products, carbon dioxide and venous blood from the veins, which are products of metabolism, urea and creatinine for excretion by the kidney.
Cells - There are 3 types of cell in the blood namely the Red Blood Cell (erythrocytes), the White Blood Cell (leucocytes) and Platelets (thrombocytes).
Red Blood Cell (erythrocytes) - are flat cells containing haemoglobin. Haemoglobin is a pigment formed from protein and iron. When combines with oxygen (automatically does) it becomes bright red giving its usual red color. The main purpose of the red cell is to take up oxygen from the air in the alveoli of the lungs and carries the oxygen to the tissues in all parts of the body. Waste carbon dioxide is taken up by the red cell in exchange for fresh oxygen. These carbon dioxide is expelled out of the lungs when the red cells reach the lungs.
Blood Cell (leucocytes) - its duty is to fight diseases and
infections. There are 3 main types of white cell in the blood namely:
White blood cell also succumb to diseases such as leukaemia where the white cells of the blood is not properly formed and it crowd out the bone marrow and interfere with the formation of red cells and platelets which leads to anaemia and haemorrhages. There are several type of Leukaemia namely Myeloid leukaemia which is a disease of the polymorphs, Lymphatic leukaemia affects the lymphocytes, Monocytic leukaemia involves the monocytes. It is important to know that leukaemia is actually a malignant disease (tends to invade normal tissue and recur after removal, cancerous.) and is virulent or infectious. Leukaemia can be acute or chronic, acute most common in children. Aim of treatment is to use drugs to destroy abnormal cells in the blood and bone marrow without too toxic to damage healthy tissues and cells. Treatment is done using intravenous injections of various combination drugs such as vincristine, methotrexate or cyclophosphamide sometimes with the additional use of radiotherapy. Chronic myeloid leukaemia affects middle aged whom will experience tiredness and anaemia. Spleen becomes greatly enlarged, discomfort in abdomen and indigestion. The diagnosis is confirmed by examining the blood where the white cell count may be more than 200,000 where the majority of the cells being abnormal poymorphonuclears. Busulphan is a drug use for treatment. In chronic lymphatic leukaemia, the spleen is not greatly enlarged but the lymph glands increase in size. Chlorambucil, one of the drug used in the treatment.
Platelets (thrombocytes) - its duty is to seal off any leaks or damage to the wall of the blood vessel as it is able to clump together forming a plug. Platelets also release a substance called thromboplastin which is important in the clotting of the blood.
Chromosome, in cytology, tiny thread-like structure, composed of nucleic acids and proteins (chromatin), found in all plant and animal cells. The chromosome contains the nucleic acid DNA, which is divided into small units called genes. The genes determine the hereditary characteristics, a child receives from his/her parent. Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes.
Forensic science now uses DNA to determine the identity of a human. From the DNA, scientist are able to predict the outcome of a child in the future.
Diseases of blood may be due to many factors before one can determine the type of disease, sample of blood has to be examined. For example, anaemia is defined as a reduction in the haemoglobin level During examining under the microscope, if the red blood cells are small in size (microcytic) and pale in color (hypochromic), the anaemia is probably caused by lack of iron. If there is a lack in Vitamin B12 or Folic Acid, the red cells are greatly reduced in number but are bigger than normal size (macrocytic) and full of haemoglobin (hyperchromic). The Liver and Spleen plays a major role in controlling quality of the blood.
Treatment of anaemia depends very much on its causes so that accurate diagnosis is essential. There are 3 main causes of anaemia:-
anaemia due to loss of blood.
Symptoms and Show Signs - are common at age of late 30's onwards and affects both sexes. Person becomes pale and weak. He/She complaints soreness of tongue, which is smooth and inflamed (glossitis). Skin may have slight yellowish tint due to a mild degree of jaundice. May affect nervous system resulting in walking difficulty (ataxia) and numerous feeling of pins and needles in the hands and feet. This result in degeneration of the spinal cord. Sometimes patients may have enlarged spleen.
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